Research & Activities


Kanai, Ryota

Kanai, Ryota
Kanai, Ryota
Affiliated Scientist (Araya Brain Imaging)
consciousness science, neuroscience

Main Publication List and Awards

104. Hayashi, M. J., Ditye, T., Harada, T., Hashiguchi, M., Sadato, N., Carlson, S., Walsh, V. & Kanai, R. (2015). Time adaptation shows duration selectivity in the human parietal cortex. PLoS Biology.

103. Loh, K.-K., & Kanai, R. (2015). How has the internet reshaped human cognition? The Neuroscientists.

102. Sherman, M., Barrett, A.B. & Kanai, R. (2015). Inferences about consciousness using subjective reports of confidence. In M. Overgaard (Eds) Behavioural Methods in Consciousness Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

101. Sherman, M.T., Seth, A.K., Barrett, A.B. & Kanai, R. (2015). Prior expectation facilitates metacognition for perceptual judgements. Consciousness & Cognition, 35, 53-65.

100. Javadi, A.H., Beyko, A., Walsh, V. & Kanai, R. (2015). Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex biases motion action choice in a perceptual decision task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

99. Kanai, R., Komura, Y., Shipp, S. & Friston, K. (2015). Precision engineered hierarchies in the brain. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B. 370(1668). pii: 20140169.

98. Kanai, R. (2015). Open questions in conducting confirmatory replication studies: Commentary on "A purely confirmatory replication study of structural brain-behaviour correlations" by Boekel et al., 2015. Cortex.

97. Song, C., Schwarzkopf, D.S., Kanai, R. & Rees, G. (2015). Neural population tuning links visual cortical anatomy to human visual perception. Neuron, 85, 641-654.

96. Hibar, D., Stein, J., Renteria, M., …, Kanai, R., et al., the ENIGMA Consortium, Thompson, P.M., & Medland, S.E. (2015). Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures. Nature, 520, 224-229. doi:10.1038/nature14101

95. Yamagishi, T., Li, Y., Takagishi, H., Kanai, R., Kiyonari, T., & Fermin, A.S.R. (2015). Brain structure correlates of costly punishment. Scientific Reports.

94. Megumi, F., Bahrami, B., Kanai, R. & Rees, G. (2015). Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception. NeuroImage, 107, 190-197.

93. Chang, A. Y.-U., Kanai, R. & Seth, A. (2014). Crossmodal prediction changes the timing of conscious access during the motion-induced blindness. Consciousness & Cognition, 31, 139-147.

92. Loh, K.-K., & Kanai, R. (2014). Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with decreased gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex. PLoS One, 9(9): e106698.

91. Getov, S., Kanai, R., Bahrami, B. & Rees, G. (2014). Human brain structure predicts individual differences in preconscious evaluation of facial dominance and trustworthiness. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 690-699.

90. Zacharopoulos, G., Binetti, N., Walsh, V. & Kanai, R. (2014). The effect of self-efficacy on visual discrimination sensitivity. PLoS One, 9(10): e109392.

89. Kanai, R. (2014). Illusory distortion of subjective time perception. In V. Arstila & D. Lloyd (Eds.), “Subjective Time: the philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of temporality”. MIT Press.

88. Watanabe, T., Masuda, N., Megumi, F., Bahrami, B., Kanai, R., & Rees, G. (2014). Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception. Nature Communications, 5: 4765.

87. Gu, J. & Kanai, R. (2014). What contributes to individual differences in brain structure? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:262.

86. Chamberlain, R., McManus, I.C., Brunswick, N., Rankin, Q., Riley H. & Kanai, R. (2014). Drawing on the right side of the brain: a voxel-based morphometry analysis of observational drawing. NeuroImage, 96, 167-173.

85. Sandberg, K., Barnes, G.R., Bahrami, B., Kanai, R., Overgaard, M. & Rees, G. (2014). Distinct MEG correlates of conscious experience, perceptual reversals and stabilization during binocular rivalry. NeuroImage, 100, 161-175.

84. Hayashi, M.J., Kantele, M., Walsh, V., Carlson, S., & Kanai, R. (2014). Dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of subsecond and suprasecond time perception. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 1685-1693.

83. Cappelletti, M., Chamberlain, R., Freeman, E.D., Kanai, R., Butterworth, B., Price, C.J. & Rees, G. (2014). Commonalities for numerical and continuous quantity skills at temporo-parietal junction. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 986-999.

82. Soto, D., Rotshtein, P. & Kanai, R. (2014). Parietal structure and function explains human variation in working memory biases of visual attention. NeuroImage, 89, 289-296.

81. Sandberg, K., Blicher, J.U., Dong, M., Rees, G., Near, J. & Kanai, R. (2014). Occipital GABA concentration predicts cognitive failures in daily life. Neuroimage, 87, 55-60.

80. Lewis, G., Kanai, R., Rees, G. & Bates, T. (2014). Neural correlates of the “good life”: eudaimonic well-being is associated with insular cortex volume. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 615-618.

79. Cullen, H., Kanai, R., Bahrami, B. & Rees, G. (2014). Individual differences in anthropomorphic judgements and human brain structure. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 1276-1280.

78. Song, C., Schwarzkopf, D., Lutti, A., Li, B., Kanai, R. & Rees, G. (2013). Effective connectivity within human primary visual cortex predicts inter-individual diversity in illusory perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 18781-18791.

77. Goh, C., Kano, Y. & Kanai, R. (2013). The brain as a mirror of health and wellbeing. Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, 28. 

76. Sumioka, H., Nakae, A., Kanai, R. & Ishiguro, H. (2013). Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels. Scientific Reports, 3:3034.

75. Cappelletti, M., Gessaroli, E., Hithersay, R., Mitolo, M., Didino, D., Kanai, R., Cohen Kadosh, R. & Walsh, V. (2013). Transfer of cognitive training across magnitude dimensions achieved with concurrent brain stimulation of the parietal lobe. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 14899-14907.

74. den Braber, A., Bohlken, M.M., Brouwer, R.M., van ‘t Ent, D., Kanai, R., Kahn, R.S., de Geus, E.J., Hulshoff Pol, H.E. & Boomsma, D.I. (2013). Heritability of subcortical brain measures: a perspective for future genome-wide association studies. NeuroImage, 83C, 98-102.

73. Ditye, T., Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Muggleton, N.G., Rees, G. & Walsh, V. (2013). Rapid changes in brain structure predict improvements induced by perceptual learning. NeuroImage, 81, 205-212.

72. Sandberg, K., Bahrami, B., Kanai, R., Barnes, G.R., Overgaard, M., & Rees, G. (2013). Early visual responses predict conscious face perception within and between subjects during binocular rivalry. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 969-985.

71. Gilaie-Dotan, S., Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Rees, G., & Saygin, A.P. (2013). Neuroanatomical correlates of biological motion detection. Neuropsychologia, 51, 457-463.

70. Goh, C., Kano, Y. & Kanai, R. (2013). Neuroprofiling: Personalised brain visualisation. AAAI Technical Report.

69. Loh, K.K. & Kanai, R. (2013). Individual differences in social media use are reflected in brain structure. AAAI Technical Report.

68. Hayashi, M.J., Kanai, R., Tanabe, H., Yoshida, Y., Carlson, S., Walsh, V. & Sadato, N. (2013). Interaction of numerosity and time in prefrontal and parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 883-893.

67. Bardi, L., Kanai, R., Mapelli, D. & Walsh, V. (2013). Hemispheric asymmetry in local/global and salience-based selection as revealed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the posterior parietal cortex. Cortex, 49, 850-860.

66. Yamakawa, Y., Kanai, R., Oka, H. & Hara, Y. (2013). Applied neuroscience for open service innovation. Society of Global Business.

65. Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Duchaine, B., Janik, A., Banissy, M.J. & Rees, G. (2012). Human brain structure links loneliness to social perception skills. Current Biology, 22, 1975-1979.

64. de Haas, B., Kanai, R., Jalkanen, L. & Rees, G. (2012). Grey matter volume in early human visual cortex predicts proneness to the sound induced flash illusion. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 4955-4961.

63. Sharot, T., Kanai, R., Marston, D., Korn, C., Rees, G. & Dolan, R. (2012). Selectively altering belief formation in the human brain. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 109, 17058-17062.

62. Hagura, N., Kanai, R., Orgs, G. & Haggard, P. (2012). Ready steady slow – action preparation slows down subjective passage of time. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 4399-4406.

61. Banissy, M.J., Kanai, R., Walsh, V. & Rees, G. (2012). Inter-individual differences in empathy are reflected in human brain structure. NeuroImage, 62, 2034-2039.

60. Gilaie-Dotan, S., Harel, A., Bentin, S., Kanai, R. & Rees, G. (2012). Structural correlates of visual object expertise. NeuroImage, 62, 147-153.

59. Kanai, R. (2012). Brain structure and individual differences in social behaviors. AAAI Technical Report.

58. Kanai, R., Muggleton, N.G., & Walsh, V. (2012). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the frontal eye fields during pro- and antisaccade tasks. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 3:45.

57. Kanai, R., & Tsuchiya, N. (2012). Primer: Qualia. Current Biology, 22, R392-R396.

56. Bardi, L., Kanai, R., Mapelli, D. & Walsh, V. (2012). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the frontal eye fields interferes with spatial conflict. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1305-1313.

55. Lewis, G., Kanai, R., Bates, T. & Rees, G. (2012). Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1657-1663.

54. Campbell-Meiklejohn, D.K., Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Bach, D.R., Dolan, R., Roepstorff, A. & Frith, C.D. (2012). Structure of orbitofrontal cortex predicts social influence. Current Biology, 20, 1165-1170.

53. Rees, G. & Kanai, R. (2012). Brain structure and mental privacy. In S. Edwards, W. Richmond & G. Rees (eds.) I Know What You Are Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

52. Banissy, M.J., Stewart, L., Muggleton, N. Griffiths, T., Walsh, V., Ward, J. & Kanai, R. (2012). Colour synaesthesia is associated with increased brain volume in left posterior fusiform gyrus, but a decrease in left anterior fusiform gyrus and left V5/MT. Cognitive Neuroscience, 3, 29-35.

51. Gilaie-Dotan, S., Kanai, R., & Rees, G. (2011). Anatomy of human sensory cortices reflects inter-individual variability in time estimation. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 5:76. doi:10.3389/fnint.2011.00076.

50. Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Roylance, R. & Rees, G. (2011). Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 1327-1334.

49. Carlson, T., Hogendoorn, H., Kanai, R., Mesik, J. & Turret, J. (2011). High temporal resolution decoding of object position and category. Journal of Vision, 11(10): article 9.

48. Song, C., Schwarzkopf, D.S., Kanai, R., & Rees, G. (2011). Reciprocal anatomical relationship between primary sensory and prefrontal cortices in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 9472-9480.

47. Kanai, R., Dong, M., Bahrami, B. & Rees, G. (2011). Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure of human parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 6620-6626.

46. Kanai, R. & Rees, G. (2011). The structural basis of inter-individual differences in human behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 231-242.

45. Paffen, C.L.E., Plukaard, S. & Kanai, R. (2011). Symbolic magnitude modulates perceptual strength in binocular rivalry. Cognition, 119, 468-475.

44. Kanai, R., Feilden, T., Firth, C. & Rees, G. (2011). Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Current Biology, 21, 677-680.

43. Feurra, M., Paulus, W., Walsh, V. & Kanai, R. (2011). Frequency specific modulation of human somatosensory cortex. Frontiers in Psychology, 2: 13.

42. Song, C., Kanai, R., Fleming, S., Weil, R., Schwarzkopf. D.S., & Rees, G. (2011). Relating inter-individual differences in metacognitive performance on different perceptual tasks. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 1787-1792.

41. Kanai, R., Lloyd, H., Bueti, D. & Walsh, V. (2011). Modality independent role of the primary auditory cortex in time perception. Experimental Brain Research, 209, 465-471.

40. Kanai, R., Carmel, D., Bahrami, B. & Rees, G. (2011). Structural and functional fractionation of right superior parietal cortex in bistable perception. Current Biology, 21, R106-R107.

39. Kanai, R., Bahrami, B. & Rees, G. (2010). Human parietal cortex structure predicts individual differences in perceptual rivalry. Current Biology, 20, 1626-1630.

38. Cohen Kadosh, R. Soskic, S, Iuculano, T., Kanai, R. & Walsh, V. (2010). Modulating neuronal activity produces specific and long lasting changes in numerical competence. Current Biology, 20, 1626-1630.

37. Kanai, R., Walsh, V. & Tseng, C.-H. (2010). Subjective discriminability of invisibility: A framework for distinguishing perceptual and attentional failures of awareness. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 1045-1057.

36. Kanai, R., Paulus, P. & Walsh, V. (2010). Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulates cortical excitability as assessed by TMS-induced phosphene thresholds. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121, 1551-1559.

35. Brascamp, J.W., Kanai, R., Walsh, V. & van Ee, R. (2010). Human MT+ is involved in perceptual memory for 3D ambiguous motion. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 760-766.

34. Kanai, R., Carlson, T.A., Verstraten, F.A.J., & Walsh, V. (2009). Perceived timings of new objects and feature changes. Journal of Vision, 9(7):5, 1-13.

33. Yamakawa, Y., Kanai, R., Matsumura, M., & Naito, E. (2009). Social distance evaluation in human parietal cortex. PLoS ONE, 4(2): e4360.

32. Kanai, R., Muggleton, N., & Walsh, V. (2008). TMS over intraparietal sulcus triggers perceptual disappearance. Journal of Neurophysiology, 100, 3343-3350.

31. Kanai, R., Chaieb, L., Antal, A., Walsh, V., & Paulus, W. (2008). Frequency-dependent electric stimulation of the visual cortex. Current Biology, 18, 1839-1843.

30. Brascamp, J.W., Knapen, T.H.J., Kanai, R., Noest, A. J., van Ee, R., & van den Berg, A. V. (2008). Multi-timescale perceptual history resolves visual ambiguity. PLoS ONE, 3(1): e1497.

29. Kanai, R. (2008). Resetting mechanisms in vision. Japanese Psychological Review, 51, 264-275.

28. Changizi, M., Hsieh, A., Nijhawan, R., Kanai, R., & Shimojo, S. (2008). Perceiving-the-present and a systematization of illusions. Cognitive Science, 32, 459-503.

27. Kanai, R., Sheth, B.R. & Shimojo, S. (2007). Transition of subjective crossmodal simultaneity. PLoS ONE, 2(12): e1253.

26. Nijboer, T., Kanai, R., de Haan, E.H.F., & van der Smagt, M.J. (2007). Remembering the forest, but not the trees: the influence of colour information on memory for scenes. Consciousness & Cognition, 17(3), 741-752.

25. Kanai, R., Knapen, T., van Ee, R., & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2007). Disruption of implicit perceptual memory by intervening neutral stimuli. Vision Research, 20, 2675-2683.

24. Brascamp, J.W., Knapen, T.H.J, Kanai, R., van Ee, R., van den Berg, A. V. (2007). Flash suppression and flash facilitation in binocular rivalry. Journal of Vision, 7(12), 1-12.

23. Kanai, R., Sheth, B. R., & Shimojo, S. (2007). Dynamical evolution of motion perception. Vision Research, 47, 937-945.

22. Knapen, T., Kanai, R., Brascamp, J., van Boxtel, J., & van Ee, R. (2007). Distance in feature space determines exclusivity in visual rivalry. Vision Research, 47, 3269-3275.

21. Knapen, T., Paffen, C., Kanai, R., van Ee, R. (2007). Stimulus flicker alters interocular grouping during binocular rivalry. Vision Research, 47, 1-7.

20. Nieuwenstein, M.R., Johnson, A., Kanai, R., & Martens, S. (2007). Cross-task repetition amnesia: Impaired recall of RSVP targets held in memory for a secondary task. Acta Psychologica, 125, 319-333.

19. Kanai, R., Paffen, C.L.E., Hogendoorn, H., & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2006). Time dilation in dynamic visual display. Journal of Vision, 6, 1421-1430.

18. Kanai, R., Tsuchiya, N., & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2006). The scope and limits of top-down attention in unconscious visual processing. Current Biology, 16, 2332-2336.

17. Kanai, R., Wu, D.-A., Verstraten, F.A.J., & Shimojo, S. (2006). Color filling-out beyond luminance gaps along perceptual surfaces. Journal of Vision, 6, 1380-1395.

16. Brouwer, A.-M., Kanai R., & Vuong, Q.C. (2006). Planning and online control of goal directed movements when the eyes are ‘relocated’. Experimental Brain Research, 175, 499-513.

15. Kanai, R., & Watanabe, M (2006) Visual onset expands subjective time. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 1113-1123.

14. Kanai, R., & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2006). Attentional modulation of perceptual stabilization. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273, 1217-1222.

13. Kanai, R., & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2006) Visual transients reveal the veridical position of a moving object. Perception, 35, 453-460.

12. Kanai, R., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2005). Perceptual manifestation of rapid plasticity: motion priming, rapid motion aftereffect and perceptual sensitization. Vision Research, 45, 3109-3116.

11. Kanai, R., Moradi, F., Shimojo, S. & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2005). Perceptual alternation induced by visual transients. Perception, 34, 803-822.

10. Maeda, F., Kanai R., & Shimojo, S. (2004). Changing pitch induced visual motion illusion. Current Biology, 14, R990-991.

9. Kanai, R., Sheth, B. R. & Shimojo, S. (2004). Stopping the motion and sleuthing the flash-lag effect: Spatial uncertainty is the key to positional mislocalization Vision Research, 44, 2605-2619.

8. Kanai, R., Paffen, C.L.E., Gerbino, W. & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2004). Blindness to inconsistent local signals in motion transparency from oscillating dots. Vision Research, 44, 2207-2212.

7. Kanai, R., & Verstraten, F.A.J. (2004). Visual transients without feature changes are sufficient for the percept of a change. Vision Research, 44, 2233-2240.

6. Wu, D.-A., Kanai, R., & Shimojo S (2004). Steady-state misbinding of colour and motion. Nature, 429, 262.

5. Paffen, C. L. E., te Pas, S., Kanai, R., van der Smagt, M. & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2004). Center-surround interactions in motion processing during binocular rivalry. Vision Research, 44,1635-1639.

4. Kanai, R., & Kamitani, Y. (2003). Time-locked perceptual fading induced by visual transients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(5), 664-672.

3. Kanai, R., van der Geest, J. N. & Frens, M. A. (2003). Inhibition of saccade initiation induced by pursuit. Experimental Brain Research, 148, 300-307.

2. van der Steen, J, & Kanai, R. (2002). Binocular eye movement responses to dichoptically presented horizontal and/or vertical stimulus steps. Annals of New York Academy of Science, 959.

1. Iwashita, M., Kanai, R., Funabiki, K., Matsuda, K. & Hirano, T. (2001). Dynamic properties, interactions and adaptive modifications of vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic response in mice. Neuroscience Research, 39(3): 299-311.


The Commendation for Science and Technology by the Minister of Education,
Culture, Sports, Science and Technology: The Young Scientists’ Prize

Best PhD dissertation award during the period of 2005-2007 from the Netherlands, Psychonomics Society NVP (2007).

Research Interests

My research question is how conscious experiences emerge from physical interactions in the brain. I have been studying the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness using neuroimaging and magnetic and electric brain stimulation in humans. Now, I’m searching for the computational principles underlying consciousness with the aim of implanting artificial consciousness into artificial intelligence systems.